Language and Societies

ANT/LIN 5320 at Wayne State University

Language and Societies abstracts, vol. 11 ( 2019)

The abstracts below are summaries of papers by junior scholars from the 2019 edition of my course, Language and Societies. The authors are undergraduate and graduate students in anthropology and linguistics at Wayne State University. Comments and questions are extremely welcome, especially at this critical juncture over the next two weeks, when the authors are making final revisions to their papers.

Kate Blatchford: Redefining Urban Space: Language in the City Beautiful Movement

Dina Charara: Islamophobic Discourse Beneath the Façade of Liberalism and Atheism

Amanda Diaz: To stage manage or not to stage manage

Josh Linden: Contrastive Focus Capitalization: Nonstandard Usages of Capital Letters in Web-based English and their Capital-I Implications

Sam M: Comparing nineteenth century literature portrayals of AAVE by black and white authors

Justin Mazzola: A Ghost of a Tale: Discerning Evidentiality Among Ghost Narratives on Reddit

Shannon Mckeown: Fake News, Crooked Hillary, and Bad People: A Linguistic Analysis of Donald Trump’s Twitter Insults

Jahnavi Narkar: The Promise of Fairness: A Linguistic Analysis of Skin Lightening Advertisements in India

Jennifer Reed: Linguistic Landscape of Japanese in Novi

Zachariah Shorufi: The linguistic legacy of British colonization in Iraq

Tabitha Trembley: The Dichotomy of Gender in Relation to Honor as Shown in the Language of Irish Fairy Tales and Folktales Printed After 1800

Michael T. Vollbach: Historical Influences on the Odawa Language

Li Zhang: Navigating internet censorship in China

 

 

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April 5, 2019 Posted by | Editor | Leave a comment

Linguistic Landscape of Japanese in Novi

Linguistic Landscape of Japanese in Novi

Jennifer Reed

This is a linguistic landscape study of the Japanese language in Novi, Michigan. It evaluates the motivations behind language use in connection to the community using historical research approaches. Asian-American landscapes remain understudied in this field. A review of past literature on linguistic landscapes, as outlined by Landry and Bourhis, provides context for this paper. Past work along with research on Japanese language and identity are then applied theoretically to various photos and resources collected from throughout Novi to draw conclusions about the Japanese language community there. Japanese language use in the area targets primarily literate Japanese audience with some regard to English speakers and Japanese speakers illiterate in Japanese. This is in accordance with its status as a language of a Japanese transplant and heritage population in an English dominant society. Future studies should focus on multilingualism in relation to permanent and temporary populations. Furthermore, a long-term study of the area could reveal further historical developments and economic motivations.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | Leave a comment

Contrastive Focus Capitalization: Nonstandard Usages of Capital Letters in Web-based English and their Capital-I Implications

Contrastive Focus Capitalization: Nonstandard Usages of Capital Letters in Web-based English and their Capital-I Implications

Josh Linden

Like most languages using the Roman alphabet, English has an upper- and lowercase form of each letter and several interconnected patterns governing their use. This paper explores the ways those patterns are changing in the age of the Internet and proposes a novel usage of sentence-internal capitalization called Contrastive Focus Capitalization (CFC). CFC mainly targets nouns and conveys a number of meanings related to legitimacy and givenness as well as drawing attention to the most prototypical or salient meaning as the intended one. This phenomenon is explored via analysis of a 2.2 million-word sample of GloWbE, the Corpus of Global Web-based English, consisting mainly of blog posts made by English speakers around the world. The related but distinct practice of capitalizing common nouns as if they were proper nouns is also discussed. It is found that the latter is more common, but both are used especially in American English. Observations are made about the scope and connotations of these forms of nonstandard capitalization and parallels are drawn to other, less orthography-dependent structures with similar meanings. These findings are then considered in the broader context of Internet-based language with the goal of examining the relationship between spoken language and written language in the Digital Age.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

Fake News, Crooked Hillary, and Bad People: A Linguistic Analysis of Donald Trump’s Twitter Insults

Fake News, Crooked Hillary, and Bad People: A Linguistic Analysis of Donald Trump’s Twitter Insults

Shannon Mckeown

As political discourse shifts from traditional media to social platforms, understanding and navigating mass communication becomes increasingly important. This paper explores the correlation between Donald Trump’s Twitter insults and standard propaganda tactics in order to reasonably predict the reach and impact of his social communications. By analyzing Trump’s most retweeted insults, this paper reveals a direct engagement with the seven propaganda devices: name calling, glittering generalities, transfer, testimonials, plain folks, card stacking, and band wagon. The tweets reviewed come primarily from the New York Times’ database of Trump’s insults and are compared to a synthesized definition of “insult” derived from the Oxford English Dictionary, Don Rothwell, and Helen Daly. Similarly, the author’s definition of “propaganda” incorporates ideas from Alfred Lee and Elizabeth Lee. Initially this paper establishes what constitutes an insult and determines how Trump’s tweets exemplify that definition. Secondly, three tweets comprised of his most popular insults “fake”, “crooked”, and “bad” are likened to the seven devices of propaganda and their context explained. Finally, the author discusses the reach and impact of Trump’s tweets, noting how information, unmoderated by reputable organizations, can quickly devolve into dangerous, politically biased propaganda.  This paper challenges the veracity of political discourse through social media and highlights the danger of an unmoderated platform. Many value the ease of instantaneous information over the faithfulness of traditional source based reporting. This modern complacency has the potential to allow for more political figures to employ the same tactics, eventually to a greater, more destructive degree.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 4 Comments

The linguistic legacy of British colonization in Iraq

The linguistic legacy of British colonization in Iraq

Zachariah Shorufi

In this article the author’s goal is to understand better how the plethora of English loanwords found their way into the Iraqi Arabic dialect. Some of the research questions brought up in the article are how Iraq developed into the nation it is today, how the Iraqi Arabic dialect evolved alongside the nation, how the dialect compares to those in countries that are geopolitically similar and share a similar history as Iraq, and how the people in the region feel about these changes to their language. The article is interesting since it aims to investigate a dialect of Arabic that is not that common for foreigners to learn and attempts to make sense of the current linguistics of the Iraqi Arabic dialect. By setting the scene for what needs to be answered or uncovered, the author runs through the history of Iraq to clarify how the current country came to be, segueing on to the more common loanwords and understanding their English origin via literature reviews. The author also draws on articles regarding the surrounding dialects in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Qatar in order to paint a picture of the regional influences English has had, considering that these countries also has very strong influences from the British. Concluding the article with how people feel about the changes to their language and attempts to replace English terms used for modern objects with original Arabic terms, the author finishes by summarizing the influences English has had on Iraqi Arabic and how English is further being intertwined with dialectic Arabic while also b4eing filtered out of the standard language.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

Navigating internet censorship in China

Navigating internet censorship in China

Li Zhang

This paper explores linguistic features Chinese citizens use to communicate across the internet and social media in a political environment where the totalitarian government is intent on exerting control and limiting free speech. Ever since access to the internet became widespread, the Chinese government has imposed strict censorship to prohibit (or limit) the spread of criticism of the government, the escalation of alternative viewpoints from political activists and the growth of profanity on the web. This strict censorship has resulted in a great number of words and phrases becoming taboo in the webspace with the result that these words and/or phrases are routinely blocked or deleted by the internet service provider. However, with thousands of years of practice in circumventing taboos, Chinese people never cease to utilize their creativity and linguistic resources to formulate new expressions to communicate important political and social messages. This paper will briefly introduce the current political and social environment that has resulted in a high level of censorship and then focus on the analysis of the newly-coined expressions popular among internet users in China in the last ten years to avoid taboos. This will demonstrate which linguistic features of Mandarin are most often used by internet users to creatively communicate their message and avoid censorship.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 3 Comments

The Promise of Fairness: A Linguistic Analysis of Skin Lightening Advertisements in India

The Promise of Fairness: A Linguistic Analysis of Skin Lightening Advertisements in India

Jahnavi Narkar

This study aims to shed light on the factors that dictate the discourse on skin lightening in India by analyzing the language used in online advertisements for skin lightening products. In many cultures, light skin is considered desirable and often represents cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1979). In such cultures, people, mostly women, often engage in the use of skin lightening products and treatments. Light skin is considered an important element of female beauty in many Asian cultures. Asia is one of the largest markets for skin lightening products with hundreds of local and international brands in India alone. In conjunction with the premium placed on light skin, stigma is attached to the lack of cultural capital symbolized by dark skin. In most Indo-Aryan languages, using the word for ‘dark’ to describe a person’s complexion is considered offensive. Euphemistic words like ‘wheatish’ and ‘dusky’ are used instead. This also applies to Indian varieties of English. This study analyzes advertisements for skin lightening products on the English and Hindi platforms of the e-commerce website Amazon, www.amazon.in, along four comparative metrics – the language of advertisement, the targeted gender, the price of the product and its country of origin. The dependent variables studied are the specific words used to describe the bleaching properties of the product, the product itself, the targeted user prior to their use of the product, the qualities the product promises to impart to the user, and the conceptual metaphor (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) used in the advertisement. This study highlights the role of language in the construction of the notions relating skin color to class, gender, and caste.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

Historical Influences on the Odawa Language

Historical Influences on the Odawa Language

Michael T. Vollbach

The Eastern Ojibwe dialect, often referred to as the Odawa language, is currently a secondary language spoken among thirteen thousand people in North America. The intent of this paper is to explain the changes that the language underwent as encountered other indigenous and European languages. Furthermore, the paper delves into the revitalization of the language that occurred in the early twentieth century. The paper relies heavily on primary sources. Many early sources observe the Odawa’s first contact with Europeans. These observations are important as they relate to the reader where early settlement and interaction with other indigenous took place. The research bears out that the result of the Iroquois Wars forced the Odawa to seek refuge in larger numbers of indigenous people that spoke a separate dialect. Living among diverse speakers effected the base language over time. As well, European influence often time saw that loan words appeared in the Odawa tongue. American domination of indigenous people had the most detrimental effect on the language. The goal of the government was to set up boarding schools that cleansed indigenous youth of their culture. These schools, sometimes called Carlisle Schools, have a very negative consequence on the Odawa language as usage began to disappear. During the decade of the 1930’s the language of the Odawa was dying. The recognition of this plight of the language led to elders leading a revitalization of the language to a modern Odawa language that is currently being spoken and taught in high schools near historical settlements today.

 

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 2 Comments

The Dichotomy of Gender in Relation to Honor as Shown in the Language of Irish Fairy Tales and Folktales Printed After 1800

The Dichotomy of Gender in Relation to Honor as Shown in the Language of Irish Fairy Tales and Folktales Printed After 1800

Tabitha Trembley

Fairy tales seem to be such an important part of our lives, both as children and as adults.  We enjoy the stories of the prince saving the princess, fairies that play in the water and with the mortals, or even the evil stepmother who is always up to no good.  On a deeper level, when looking at these stories there is a clear dichotomy of language used to describe not only males and females, but also the character traits they possess.  My interest specifically is how “honor” is described between males and females, if there is a difference, if it is specifically stated or is it assumed based on other words.  While “honor” itself may not always be stated, there are descriptions that lead to the assumption of honor and dishonor.  It is these terms I choose to focus on.  I did this by focusing on analyzing a handful of Irish folktales, researching scholarly articles written by those specializing in fairy tales, and combining it all into a cohesive and easy to follow analysis.  I hope that this work can lead into what these stories tell us about ourselves, how they effect the way we see male/female roles and the differences of honor between the two.

 

Fairy tales seem to be such an important part of our lives, both as children and as adults.  We enjoy the stories of the prince saving the princess, fairies that play in the water and with the mortals, or even the evil stepmother who is always up to no good.  On a deeper level, when looking at these stories there is a clear dichotomy of language used to describe not only males and females, but also the character traits they possess.  My interest specifically is how “honor” is described between males and females, if there is a difference, if it is specifically stated or is it assumed based on other words.  While “honor” itself may not always be stated, there are descriptions that lead to the assumption of honor and dishonor.  It is these terms I choose to focus on.  I did this by focusing on analyzing a handful of Irish folktales, researching scholarly articles written by those specializing in fairy tales, and combining it all into a cohesive and easy to follow analysis.  I hope that this work can lead into what these stories tell us about ourselves, how they effect the way we see male/female roles and the differences of honor between the two.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 3 Comments

To stage manage or not to stage manage

To stage manage or not to stage manage

Amanda Diaz

To speak and to understand are two concepts that do not always work together.  The language that one speaks in their profession is one that is unique.  The only individuals that understand are those that have firsthand experience.  This paper shows how language in the theater is unique in the type of language used for a specific type of theater. The language is focused on the stage manager, and how they interact with the director, designers, actors, and crew.  In turn how the director, designers, actors, and crew interact with the stage manager.  The role of the stage manager is that of parent, teacher, liaison, priest, and so on to those they work with, with the knowledge that it varies between musicals, non-musicals, and dance. Both the Social Exchange Theory and the Boundary Theory play a role in how the interaction will play out.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

Comparing nineteenth century literature portrayals of AAVE by black and white authors

Comparing nineteenth century literature portrayals of AAVE by black and white authors

Sam M

Research concerning African American English in general is not common and even less common is the study of the dialect in written form. Thus, this paper asks a unique question – is there a difference in how black and white writers portrayed black speakers of AAVE in literature? I examine four nineteenth-century literary works dating from 1852-1888 for uses of double negation in both white and black characters and compare them for frequency of use. I find that there is indeed a difference in how these writers portrayed black characters speech. African American writers used fewer AAVE constructions than white writers. I think these findings demonstrate to us possible attitudes of white writers toward African Americans, and black writers toward themselves. Future research on this issue could reveal more systematic difference in portrayals of black characters and could provide further insight into the attitudes toward African Americans at the time.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 2 Comments

Islamophobic Discourse Beneath the Façade of Liberalism and Atheism

Islamophobic Discourse Beneath the Façade of Liberalism and Atheism

Dina Charara

When President Donald Trump issued the first of three travel bans blocking travel from Muslim-majority countries in 2017, it became widely known as the “Muslim Ban”, and caused a mixed set of reactions. Sam Harris, an American neuroscientist, philosopher, blogger, podcast host, and a well-known atheist thinker, and Bill Maher, a Democrat American comedian, political commentator, and an openly atheist thinker both spoke about the travel ban. While each of them has criticized Islam for at least the past decade, this paper examines what they have said about Islam in light of the first of three travel bans issued by Donald Trump by using liberalism and atheism to support the points they make. This paper uses the work of Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Van Dijk (1993), and Santa Ana (1999) in the form of a discourse analysis to show how Harris and Maher used atheism and liberalism as ideologies to demonize Muslims and Islam around the time of the first travel ban. The primary sources of this paper include an episode of The Messy Truth with Van Jones in which Bill Maher appears as a guest, The Muslim Ban by Sam Harris, and Winning the War of Ideas—Real Time with Bill Maher (HBO) in which Sam Harris appears as a guest. This research found that Maher’s and Harris’ critique of Islam by using an Us vs. Them narrative, depicting a war of ideas with the Muslim world, and referring to non-practicing Muslims as moderate reflects Islamophobic notions.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

A Ghost of a Tale: Discerning Evidentiality Among Ghost Narratives on Reddit

A Ghost of a Tale: Discerning Evidentiality Among Ghost Narratives on Reddit

Justin Mazzola

Human beings have been telling ghost stories for as long as there have been campfires to tell them around. These narratives take root in fiction or in fact depending on how they are told and who they are told by. This paper utilizes the concept of evidentiality, a linguistic system that seeks to show ‘truth telling’ in text, and how it applies to self-proclaimed ghost narratives the author wishes to convey as fact. Blog posts were chosen on http://www.reddit.com’s r/ghosts subreddit and analyzed via discourse analysis based on word count, popularity of the post, word indicators used by the author to convey truth telling as well as other markers such as skepticism, adamant belief and seeking advice. The data collected from these blog posts were used to consider the commonalities between authors and how the speech they use reflects the truth in their narratives. Ghost narratives treading in a scrutinized territory before they are even spoken/written depend on a specific type of communication in order to be conveyed elegantly enough to be believed by the intended audience. Utilizing the concepts founded in evidentiality I was able to link certain aspects of writing styles and means of establishing fact between authors to show how presenting this particular type of ghostly context fits into a specific formula. That formula ultimately translated into specific words and phrases the authors would use to establish their authority on the matter and why what they were saying about their spiritual encounter was the truth. Although this framework only finds its applications in the type of narrative I have analyzed it would be interesting to explore how these formulas find themselves relevant in broader and much longer ghost narratives that are presented as fact.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 4 Comments

Redefining Urban Space: Language in the City Beautiful Movement

Redefining Urban Space: Language in the City Beautiful Movement

Kate Blatchford

Spurred on by Chicago’s World Colombian Exposition in 1893, the City Beautiful movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries sought to improve American cities through ‘beautification’.  This took the form in some places of monumental building or city planning, and in others of a new support for municipal art.  The extent to which the movement succeeded varied by location.  Language used to describe and define urban space has a very real effect on how that space is viewed, and therefore how it is experienced and ultimately what is done with it.  This paper examines how language was used by and about the City Beautiful movement in order to further the goals of the movement.  In particular, it examines how urban space and landscapes were defined and framed by newspaper articles contemporary to the movement.  Articles regarding the movement in Washington D.C., New York City, and Detroit were examined.  Through discourse analysis, the paper finds that negative framing was used in discussion of the past and present of the city, while the potential future offered by the movement was framed positively.

April 5, 2019 Posted by | abstract | 3 Comments

Language and Societies abstracts, vol. 10 (2018)

The abstracts below are summaries of papers by junior scholars from the 2018 edition of my course, Language and Societies. The authors are undergraduate and graduate students in anthropology and linguistics at Wayne State University. Comments and questions are extremely welcome, especially at this critical juncture over the next two weeks, when the authors are making final revisions to their papers.

Yen-ting Chang: “Found My Best Self”: Women’s Fitness and Body Transformation Discourse

Asa Choate: French Naming Practice of Assimilating English-based Internet Terminology

Grace Fusani: Languages in Dreams: A Look into the Influencers of Bilinguals & L2 Learners in the Dreamworld

Ashley Johnson: Language, gender, and uncertainty in writing about sex identification in Maya bioarchaeology

Robert McCallum: Tensions, Power and Words: The Use of Authoritative Brand Identity Language on Ad Agency Websites

Andrew McKinney: Sorrow, shame, and lament in Irish folk lyrics

Kelsey McKoy: The Interpretation of African American Vernacular English in Museums

Craig Meiners: Metaphors in Branding and Design of Professional Basketball Players’ Shoes

Haley Scott: Melancholia, A Lover’s Rejection, and Fortune Teller’s Reading: A linguistic analysis of suicide obituaries in a historical newspaper

Carly Slank: Dogespeak: a Heckin Good Descriptive and Contextual Analysis

Samantha Spolarich: The magical discourse of Harry Potter: how spells came to be

Cory Taylor: The Language of the Time Lords: A linguistic study on the effect of invented languages on the social hierarchy of fandom communities

Jami Van Alstine: Voice in postcards related to the woman’s suffrage movement in the United States in the early 20th century

Anna Zabicka: “Rigvir, Anyone?”: A Discourse Analysis Of Oncolytic Virotherapy Medication Websites

 

April 5, 2019 Posted by | Editor | Leave a comment

Language and Societies abstracts, vol. 10 (2018)

The abstracts below are summaries of papers by junior scholars from the 2018 edition of my course, Language and Societies. The authors are undergraduate and graduate students in anthropology and linguistics at Wayne State University. Comments and questions are extremely welcome, especially at this critical juncture over the next two weeks, when the authors are making final revisions to their papers.

Yen-ting Chang: “Found My Best Self”: Women’s Fitness and Body Transformation Discourse

Asa Choate: French Naming Practice of Assimilating English-based Internet Terminology

Grace Fusani: Languages in Dreams: A Look into the Influencers of Bilinguals & L2 Learners in the Dreamworld

Ashley Johnson: Language, gender, and uncertainty in writing about sex identification in Maya bioarchaeology

Robert McCallum: Tensions, Power and Words: The Use of Authoritative Brand Identity Language on Ad Agency Websites

Andrew McKinney: Sorrow, shame, and lament in Irish folk lyrics

Kelsey McKoy: The Interpretation of African American Vernacular English in Museums

Craig Meiners: Metaphors in Branding and Design of Professional Basketball Players’ Shoes

Haley Scott: Melancholia, A Lover’s Rejection, and Fortune Teller’s Reading: A linguistic analysis of suicide obituaries in a historical newspaper

Carly Slank: Dogespeak: a Heckin Good Descriptive and Contextual Analysis

Samantha Spolarich: The magical discourse of Harry Potter: how spells came to be

Cory Taylor: The Language of the Time Lords: A linguistic study on the effect of invented languages on the social hierarchy of fandom communities

Jami Van Alstine: Voice in postcards related to the woman’s suffrage movement in the United States in the early 20th century

Anna Zabicka: “Rigvir, Anyone?”: A Discourse Analysis Of Oncolytic Virotherapy Medication Websites

 

April 2, 2018 Posted by | Editor | Leave a comment

Language, gender, and uncertainty in writing about sex identification in Maya bioarchaeology

Language, gender, and uncertainty in writing about sex identification in Maya bioarchaeology

Ashley Johnson

The long-stigmatized language use of women is finally being studied under the third wave of feminism in the United States. The influence of feminism on academia has encouraged those of all genders to look critically at stereotypes thought to belong to each of the genders’ use of academic language. I seek to contribute to this ongoing movement through my own work. My project aims to discover if men and women use different writing styles in academic literature, specifically whether they express their uncertainty differently. Demonstrating uncertainty in academia can be a difficult task. I worked to understand whether men and women discuss differently their sex determination of skeletal individuals from Mayan populations due to its well-studied nature. To conduct this study, I performed a discourse analysis. Several papers on Mayan bioarchaeology were placed into categories based on the authors’ genders. Then, number of hedges were counted as a basis for the study, but all recognizable patterns were discussed. I determined that men and women use hedges at an equal rate and in similar fashions. And, that the overall patterns in language were less related to gender and more related to the audience and the subject. Instead of expressing uncertainty, both genders used a method of blame displacement that allowed their uncertainty to transfer to those who created the methodology they used, which was often Jane Buikstra and Douglas Ubelaker. Overall, men and women both expressed uncertainty on their sex determination of Mayan individuals equally and similarly, proving that perhaps language differences between genders does not exist as intensely as previously speculated.

April 2, 2018 Posted by | abstract | 1 Comment

Dogespeak: a Heckin Good Descriptive and Contextual Analysis

Dogespeak: a Heckin Good Descriptive and Contextual Analysis

Carly Slank

Varieties of language that arise in the medium of the internet give contemporary linguists an unprecedented opportunity to study linguistic change and enregisterment. Because of the global and frequently anonymous positions of internet users, registers of internet language often rely on common interest or opinion rather than status, occupation, ethnicity, or locale to bind their communities of speakers. Dogespeak is a variety of ludic language or language play that rests on a cross-cultural common interest in dogs, humor, and manipulation of language that began with a single forum post; in the past five years, the style of language play used in that forum post has been enregistered and gradually incorporated with lexical, morphological, and syntactic conventions to constitute what is now known as dogespeak. Using forum, blog, and social media posts from several popular online hubs of dogespeak, the introduction of each precept of the register can be identified, resulting in a timeline of dogespeak enregisterment. Here, the current lexical, morphological, and syntactic features of dogespeak are described and positioned within the developmental history of the register. While the first enregistered feature of dogespeak, the syntactic “wow-modifier” rule, has been the subject of linguistic inquiry before, the present research offers a more extensive diachronic analysis of this and many more recently enregistered features including the “heckin” modifier, the “-boi” morpheme, and the “doin me a (frighten)” clause.

April 2, 2018 Posted by | abstract | 4 Comments

Voice in postcards related to the woman’s suffrage movement in the United States in the early 20th century

Voice in postcards related to the woman’s suffrage movement in the United States in the early 20th century

Jami Van Alstine

Cartoons which have a voice, an audience, dual-semiotic meanings have been a part of socio-political discourse in the United States since prior to the American Revolution.  Similarly, postcards, sharing these characteristics were an inexpensive and widely shared media in the early decades of the 20th century that often reflected the attitudes, pastimes, sentiments, and tastes of the American people.  By analyzing the voice, audience, and dual semiotic meanings in a small random sampling of pro- and anti-Woman Suffrage postcards in circulation between 1890 and 1920 in the United States we are able to show that women, both suffragettes and remonstrants, were active agents of change in the claiming and use of their voice in the period leading up to the adoption of the 19th Amendment.

 

 

April 2, 2018 Posted by | abstract | 5 Comments

Languages in Dreams: A Look into the Influencers of Bilinguals & L2 Learners in the Dreamworld

Languages in Dreams: A Look into the Influencers of Bilinguals & L2 Learners in the Dreamworld

Grace Fusani

It is not often thought about but when we dream, the dreamworld produces language that is drawn from our experiences in everyday life. What occurs in dream speech when an individual knows more than one language or is learning another language is explored and detailed in this paper. This paper aims to explain bilingualism and learned languages and their effects on the dreamworld through interviews with a set of college students as well as extensive literature reviews. Some of the areas examined are how languages influence dreams, the difference between L2 learner and bilingual dreams, and if dreaming in a learned language is a sign of fluency. This research found that a person’s mentality, environment, attitude, and dream setting directly influence the dream language and that dreaming in a learned language is a sign of better comprehension rather than fluency. Also detailed are how bilinguals identify with certain languages, both culturally and emotionally, and how they code-switch in dreams.

 

 

April 2, 2018 Posted by | abstract | 6 Comments